Key Topics in Ohio Education

What are Ohio's Learning Standards?
Learning Standards define what students should know and be able to do at each grade. Ohio's Learning Standards are intended to guide teaching so that students study the most important and useful concepts within each subject, drill deeply into each area, and learn to apply knowledge and skills in the subject. Currently, educators statewide are assisting the Ohio Department of Education (ODE) in updating Ohio’s Learning Standards, which began with changes those in English language arts and mathematics. The ODE implemented the new English language arts and mathematics standards during the 2018-19 school year, and is now in the revision process for Ohio’s Learning Standards in science, social studies and financial literacy. The ODE hopes to implement those revisions in the 2020-21 school year. For a timeline of revisions and details on individual area standards, visit the Standards Revision Overview on the ODE website.
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What are Ohio's Early Learning and Development Standards?
Ohio's Early Learning and Development Standards describe key concepts and skills that young children develop during the birth-to-five-year period. Their purpose is to support the development and well-being of young children and to foster their learning. They cover five essential domains of development and school readiness: Social and Emotional Development, Physical Well-being and Motor Development, Approaches Toward Learning, Language and Literacy Development, and Cognition and General Knowledge.
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What is Ohio’s Kindergarten Readiness Assessment (KRA)?
The KRA is a tool used by teachers to measure the school readiness of children at kindergarten entry. It is intended to show how well-prepared children are for kindergarten. The KRA assesses four areas of early learning:

  • Social Foundations, including social and emotional development and approaches toward learning
  • Mathematics
  • Language and Literacy
  • Physical Well-being and Motor Development

The KRA involves observation by the teacher, simple questions and answers between teacher and student, and specific tasks performed by the student (such as producing a rhyming word).
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What is Ohio's Third Grade Reading Guarantee?
Ohio's Third Grade Reading Guarantee (TGRG) is a statewide program to identify students who are behind in reading from kindergarten through third grade. The TGRG requires that school districts and community schools use diagnostic assessments adopted by the State Board of Education to assess each student's reading skills at the beginning of kindergarten, first, second, and third grade, to identify students reading below grade level. Upon identification of a student as underperforming, the district or school must notify the student's parent and provide the student with intervention services, including a reading improvement and monitoring plan. Current law generally requires that Ohio students must demonstrate a certain level of reading competency before advancing to fourth grade. There are exceptions for students in specific circumstances.
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What are Ohio's State Tests?
Ohio students are tested in English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies. Ohio's State Tests Portal offers a Student Practice Site and resources for students and educators, including frequent updates about developments in this fast-changing area.The ODE provides guidance (PDF download) on the importance of tests and the consequences for not participating.
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What are Ohio's School Report Cards?
Ohio School Report Cards give school districts, communities, and families a clear picture of the progress of each district and school in raising achievement and preparing students for college and career. The information measures district and school performance in the areas most critical to success in learning, as well as information on academic and financial performance metrics. Ohio School Report Cards data shows educators, school administrators, and families where their schools are succeeding, as well as areas where they need to improve.
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